December 2, 2022

Loss of life of a star reveals middle size black hole lurking within a dwarf galaxy

Supermassive black holes are found at the centers of all massive galaxies, including our own Milky Way

A good intermediate-mass black hole hiding undetected in a dwarf universe revealed itself to astronomers when it gobbled up an unlucky star that strayed too close.

The shredding of the star, known as a “ tidal disruption event” or even TDE, produced a sparkle of radiation that briefly outshone the combined great light of the host little galaxy and could help scientists better understand the relationships between black holes and galaxies.

The sparkle was captured by astronomers with the Young Supernova Test (YSE), a survey made to detect cosmic explosions plus transient astrophysical events. A worldwide team led by scientists at UC Santa Cruz, the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen, and Washington State College reported the discovery inside a paper  published   November 10 in  Nature Astronomy .

“ This particular discovery has created widespread excitement because we can use tidal disruption events not only to find more intermediate-mass  dark holes   within quiet dwarf  galaxies , but also to measure their masses, ” said coauthor Ryan Foley, a good assistant professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz who helped plan the YSE study.

First writer Charlotte Angus at the Niels Bohr Institute said the particular team’s findings provide a baseline for future studies of midsize black holes.

“ The fact that we were able to capture this middle size black hole whilst this devoured a star offered us a remarkable opportunity to detect what otherwise would have been hidden from us, ” Angus said. “ Furthermore, we can use the properties from the flare itself to better fully grasp this elusive group of middle-weight dark holes, which could account for nearly all black holes in the facilities of galaxies. ”

Supermassive black openings are found at the centers of all massive galaxies, including our own Milky Way. Astronomers rumours that these massive beasts, with millions or billions of periods the mass of the sun, could have grown from smaller sized “ intermediate-mass” black holes with thousands to thousands of  solar masses .

One particular theory for how such massive black holes had been assembled is that the  early universe   was rampant with small dwarf galaxies with intermediate-mass black holes. Over time, these dwarf galaxies would have combined or been gobbled upward by more massive galaxies, their cores combining each time to build up the mass in the heart of the growing galaxy. This particular merger process would ultimately create the  supermassive black holes   seen today.

“ If we can understand the population of intermediate-mass dark holes out there— how many there are and where these are located— we can help determine if our theories of supermassive black hole formation are correct, ” said coauthor Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz, professor associated with astronomy and astrophysics on UCSC and Niels Bohr Professor at the University of Copenhagen.

But do all dwarf galaxies have midsize black openings?

“ That is certainly difficult to assert, because discovering intermediate-mass black holes is incredibly challenging, ” Ramirez-Ruiz stated.

Classic black hole hunting techniques, which look for actively feeding black holes, are often not delicate enough to uncover black holes in the centers of dwarf galaxies. As a result, only a very low fraction of dwarf galaxies is known to host intermediate-mass dark holes. Finding more midsize black holes with tidal disruption events could help to settle the debate about how supermassive black holes form.

“ One of the biggest open questions in astronomy is currently how supermassive black holes form, ” said coauthor Vivienne Baldassare, professor of physics and astronomy on Washington State University.

Data from the Younger Supernova Experiment enabled the team to detect the first signs of light as the dark hole began to eat the particular star. Capturing this initial moment was pivotal in order to unlocking how big the dark hole was, because the period of these events can be used to gauge the mass of the central dark hole. This method, which until now had only been shown to work well for supermassive  black holes , was initially proposed by Ramirez-Ruiz and coauthor Brenna Mockler at UC Santa Cruz.

“ This flare was incredibly fast, but because our YSE information gave us so much early information about the event, we were really able to pin down the bulk of the black hole utilizing it, ” Angus said.

This study was based on data from observatories around the world, including the W. Mirielle. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, the Nordic Optical Telescope, UC’s Lick Observatory, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, the international Gemini Observatory, the Palomar Observatory, and the Pan-STARRS Survey at Haleakala Observatory.

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